Are you frequently dealing with debts and expenditures, which you simply can’t maintain?
If you have a steady source of income but are still facing a problem in settling the debts, then Chapter 13 bankruptcy is apt for you. In many Chapter 13 plans, few debts are allowed to be liquidated. The rest of the debts are arranged in feasible debt-repayment schemes, so that you can repay the creditors in a convenient manner. Chapter 13 is applicable for you under the following circumstances:
* You have a regular source of income.
* Your debts are not too high.
Chapter 13 repayment plan: The refund plan is an arrangement between you and your creditors. Here, the creditors may agree to excuse a portion of your debts, or allow you to pay off the debts later. The plan necessitates you to give monthly pay-offs to the bankruptcy trustee. Whilst you are paying under a plan, it is mandatory for the creditors (mentioned in the plan) to follow the terms of the plan. Thus, they are banned from taking any collective measures against you.
Chapter 13 plan may help you if:
* You are late in repaying the loan or mortgage.
* You possess any current tax debt.
* You have availed to a Chapter 7 discharge in the preceding eight years.
Why hire a Chapter 13 Bankruptcy Attorney?
Adjust Debts: Perhaps, one of the primary reasons for hiring a Chapter 13 bankruptcy attorney is for assisting you to adjust the debts. An attorney designs out a method to repay debts over a span of time whilst helping you preserve your properties. Generally, the repayment period lasts from 3 to 5 years.
Appropriate Repayment Plan: A Chapter 13 bankruptcy attorney formulates a fitting repayment plan to ascertain that every debtor makes the payments on time (in a manner which is apt for them). The plan may either include part or whole of the debts (depending upon the monthly income and expenditures of the debtors).
Prevents Foreclosure Proceeding : If you hire a Chapter 13 bankruptcy attorney, you may prevent foreclosure proceedings. The attorney generally concludes a repayment plan that includes monthly payments in favor of mortgages. The plan eradicates delinquent payments on mortgage, and the mortgage is paid throughout the Chapter 13 bankruptcy plan.
If you are eager to consult a competent Chapter 13 bankruptcy attorney – Chattanooga (TN) residents and people of Northwest Georgia can visit moneyproblems.com. The law firm of Eron Epstein features some of the best bankruptcy attorneys who can help you in keeping the finances under control.
It is necessary for every person who owns a car to buy auto insurance. When selecting an auto insurance plan is important to find a plan that fits your needs and does not cost you more money than it should. You should take the time to educate yourself about the different types of auto insurance that are available. The following article is a great way to start.
One way to save money on your auto insurance is to buy your policy over the internet. Purchasing your policy online incurs fewer costs for the insurance company and many companies will then pass on those savings to the consumer. Buying auto insurance online can save you about five to ten percent annually.
Most people today are purchasing their auto insurance via the Internet, but you should remember not to be sucked in by a good-looking website. Having the best website in the business does not mean a company has the best insurance in the business. Compare the black and white, the details. Do not be fooled by fancy design features and bright colors.
Once you have a teenage driver in your house, your insurance premiums will go up. To save money, buy a less expensive and safer car for your teen to drive. Don’t give in if they beg you for a fancier, sportier car. The safer the car, the cheaper the insurance.
Remove towing from your car insurance. Removing towing will save money. Proper maintenance of your car and common sense may ensure that you will not need to be towed. Accidents do happen, but they are rare. It usually comes out a little cheaper in the end to pay out of pocket.
If the amount of your premium on your auto insurance seems to high, make sure to question it. If you don’t, you could end up paying an incorrect amount. Call the insurance company and ask them why your rates are the way they are. Remember, tickets and accidents can also raise premium rates.
Take a close look at your auto policy and take off any “extras” that you won’t use. For example, you might have emergency roadside assistance included in your plan. If you don’t think you are going to use this, drop it in order to decrease the amount you are spending on your insurance. Your agent can help you figure out what else might apply.
Your insurance premiums are based on your demographic information. This means that certain categories of people will pay more than others. If you find your insurance too high, perhaps someone else can insure it in their name for you. This is not illegal if this is a shared vehicle.
As was stated in the beginning of this article, before buying auto insurance you should take the necessary time to educate yourself on the different types of auto insurance available to you. If you know the type of coverage you need and the amount of money you can afford to spend, then finding the right auto insurance is not so difficult. Apply the advice from this article and you should be able to get yourself quality auto insurance at a fair price.
New Hampshire motorists in Violation of the Law
New Hampshire motorists who use drive time to chat on the phone, read the paper or apply makeup may want to focus on the road.
In that state, if you cause harm to another vehicle or a pedestrian while engaged in an activity behind the wheel, you face a maximum fine of $1,000 and lose your license for up to a year.
“This is a good deterrent to have on the books,” says Peter M. Thomson, coordinator of New Hampshire’s Highway State Agency. “I travel 65 miles to work, on Interstate 93, and I see a ton of distracted drivers. You name it, and I have seen it. It drives me crazy to see people trying to drive with a full plate of food on their lap while trying to steer with their knees.”Visit this website
New Hampshire’s no-nonsense law carries the greatest fine and penalty of the nine states with the harshest laws for distracted drivers on our list.
Distraction Equals Accidents
Almost 80% of crashes and 65% of near-crashes involved some form of driver inattention within three seconds of the event, according to the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study, conducted by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and released in April 2006.
The most common distraction cited was cellphone use (followed by drowsiness).
Bans on using a handheld cellphone while driving are in the works in several states, including California, which on July 1 will become the latest state to ban cellphone use, joining New York, Washington, D.C., Connecticut and New Jersey–though hands-free phones will still be permitted. This will be a primary offense, meaning police officers can ticket motorists talking on a handheld phone even if they haven’t violated other traffic laws.
Connecticut bans the use of handheld cellphones, yet goes a step further by prohibiting the use of other electronic devices, such as personal digital assistants. New Jersey does the same and adds text messaging to its list of specific offenses. Washington State banned text messaging in January and, come July 1, will prohibit the use of handheld cellphones in general.
Ohio is the only state on the list that doesn’t ban using cellphones while driving. But, in Ohio, it is a primary offense to drive while wearing earphones or earplugs for listening to devices such as iPods or CD players (though ear-in devices for cellphones are permitted). This law has been on the books since 1989. Violators are cited for committing a minor misdemeanor, which carries a maximum fine of $1,000, says Bradley Shaw, a spokesman for the Ohio State Highway Patrol. The amount of the ticket varies by county and is determined by your driving record, prior convictions and other moving violations.
While other states are debating bans on cellphones, text messaging and other distractions, lawmakers and auto safety agencies continue to review the best ways to deal with people who insist on multitasking while driving.
Like New Hampshire, Utah prohibits multiple activities that it deems distracting, like smoking, eating, drinking and “physically attending to a passenger.” The maximum fine is $50 on top of fines incurred for related moving violations, such as running a red light or causing an accident.
Rules For Hands-Free Phones
No state has entirely banned the use of cellphones while driving; you can still use hands-free wireless devices, but the rules aren’t the same for all drivers. Seventeen states and the District of Columbia have various levels of restrictions for all cellphone use, hands-free included, for teens age 18 and younger, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.
For now, drivers over the age of 18 with full driving privileges can use hands-free communication devices, even in the states that ban handheld electronics. But this is something that Clarence Ditlow, executive director of the Center for Auto Safety, a Washington-based consumer watchdog for auto safety and quality founded by Ralph Nader in 1970, is fighting to change.
In March, the CAS filed a petition with the NHTSA, asking the agency to write rules prohibiting the use of interactive systems that allow drivers to have wireless access to e-mails and phone calls. “There is a false perception that hands-free phones are better,” says Ditlow. “Your mind is still off the road and focused on the conversation.”
When Washington’s ban on text messaging goes into effect July 1, it will be a secondary offense; you’ll only receive a ticket if you commit another moving violation, other than speeding. Though the same holds true for distracted-driver laws in several states, it pays to play it safe. In Connecticut and New Hampshire, for example, the fines and license-suspension terms go up with each offense.
However, you don’t have to worry about inadvertently breaking the law when commuting across state lines: The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety ( www.iihs.org) and AAA publish a state-by-state listing of cellphone bans and distracted-driving laws.
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Our company Trophy AC bases its home comfort systems largely on heating methods imported from Europe, where regulatory conditions and the scarcity of fossil fuels have led to the development of the world’s most sophisticated and energy efficient technology available today.
Europeans have enjoyed the quality and comfort of radiant heating for more than 30 years, perfecting not only the technology, but the installation methods also.
Rather than viewing each mechanical component of a home separately, Europeans integrate all components into one combined system, providing homeowners the ultimate in quality, comfort, safety and efficiency.
This is called the whole house approach.
The Whole House Approach
Each house is a system of finely-tuned, integrated parts.
When functioning at peak performance, each component works in unison.
On the other hand, a weakness in just one component can compromise the comfort and quality of an entire home.
For example, failing to properly insulate a home using the best methods and materials can result in compromised performance in the entire heating system — from the boiler’s ability to generate heat efficiently to the chimney’s ability to exhaust toxic gases like carbon monoxide.
The performance of each and every component depends on their integration into one, singular system the whole house.
The Physics of Radiant Heat
Radiant heat travels in all directions.
Much like the heat of the sun, radiant systems heat objects and people, not just the surrounding air.
Think about being outside on a freezing 20-degree day and walking on the shady side of the street.
When you go to the sunny-side of the street you suddenly feel warmer.
When the floor is heated from the water in the tubing, the floor becomes the radiator and releases heat waves to your body and the surrounding objects, giving the sensation and comfort of warmth.
This simple principle allows temperatures in a radiant-heated room to be set lower, lowering fuel consumption and actually improving comfort.
In a properly installed radiant heating system, floor temperatures rise to no more than 85 degrees. This assures maximum comfort safety, and protects the floors from damage due to drying.
Temperatures above this can cause overheating, sweating of feet and decreased system efficiency.
Designing the system
A well-engineered radiant system should be designed to operate using lower water temperatures, maximizing overall efficiency and comfort.
Designing a system requires careful analysis of the many factors that effect heat output.
These factors include:
Floor surface area
Insulation and ventilation
Equipment (boiler size, etc)
While most of these factors can be controlled, one factor that usually can’t be is the size of the floor surface.
Depending on the heat-loss of the room, the possibility exists that there may not be enough floor surface-area to heat the room sufficiently.
In this is the case, walls or ceilings can be utilized for radiant heat by installing a climate panel or Thermalboard system.
The most widely used tubing in Europe is called PEX (cross linked polyethylene).
This flexible plastic tubing was original designed for the telecommunications industry in the laying of the trans-Atlantic cable.
PEX has been in use for over 30 years, and as a result of rigid, ongoing testing, it has been shown to have a life expectancy of over 200 years.
PEX tubing is becoming the material of choice in the U.S., versus rubber tubing, which is prone to rapid deterioration.
Another type of tubing that is catching on is PEOC made of Dowlex PE-RT resins.
It is a flexible, easy to handle, five layer tubing with a built-in oxygen barrier.
Boilers – Heating the water:
There are a variety of ways in which to heat the water for your radiant system:
Ground Source Heat Pumps
Dedicated Water Heaters
Device should be able to withstand lower water temperatures associated with radiant heat. If not, systems or provisions should be made to address this issue.
Offer the lowest possible operating cost
Be clean-burning with low emissions
Have a large water storage capacity to prevent short cycling (unless it has a modulating burner)
Be easy to service
Different Methods For Different Circumstances
Depending on a home’s structural design, two methods for installing radiant heat are generally employed — wet systems and dry systems.
Wet systems require the tubing to be embedded in concrete. Wet systems are usually found in basements, garages or slab-on-grade construction.
In some living areas, tubing is attached to the top of the sub-floor and then covered with a layer of lightweight concrete.
The benefit to this system comes with its high levels of heat output.
Its disadvantages, however, include:
Installation of hardwood floors become more difficult
Requires a minimum of 1-1/2″ inches of height
Moisture curing can be a problem, compromising the integrity of the flooring
Weight of concrete sometimes requires additional framing
Above the sub-floor:
Tubing can be installed on top of sub-floor with aluminum plates and plywood strips, called sleepers.
Dry systems such as these allow finished floor to be installed directly over the tubing.
A method superior to the sleeper system is the climate panel system, consisting of ½”inch plywood, seven or ten inches wide and 4 feet in length.
The panels are equipped with aluminum bonded to the underside. There is a groove in the center that accommodates PEX tubing.
Another product is Thermalboard. A 5/8” thick medium density fiberboard covered with aluminum and a groove that accommodates the tubing.
These panels can be applied on top of the sub-floor or a concrete floor, requiring only 1/2″ – 5/8” in height. The finished floor is applied directly on top of this system.
Excellent heat output
Requires a minimum of 1-1/2″ inches of height
Lightweight and low profile, no additional framing needed
Tubing is visible when nailing finished flooring
No moisture problems
Below the sub-floor:
Another dry method is tubing stapled beneath the sub-floor with aluminum heat transfer plates.
This method enjoys most of the advantages of the top of the floor system except that heat output is lower, due to the extra layer of flooring the heat has to travel through.
When used in new construction, care should be taken to avoid any punctures to the tubing.
This is not a problem for a competent flooring company.
Another commonly used dry method that we don’t recommend is to install the tubing beneath the sub-floor with no aluminum heat transfer plates.
Because there is little thermal contact of the tubing to the floor, water temperatures have to be increased.
The overall performance of these systems can be very disappointing, especially in colder weather.
The exception to this rule is when you only want to warm the floor surface or want to supplement an existing heat source.
Water temperatures created by heating boilers are usually in the 180 degree F range and are too hot for radiant heat applications.
Excessive temperatures can cause overheating of the space and damage to floors.
An effective way to lower the water temperature is by the use of a mixing valve.
Some mixing valves are set to a fixed temperature but the preferred method is a motorized, modulating valve.
These motorized units provide a higher level of comfort and economy of operation.
Controlling for Comfort
The traditional way to control the comfort of a building is to use a thermostat that turns the circulating pump and boiler on and off as the temperature in the room rises and falls.
The disadvantage of this method comes with the wide fluctuation temperatures, which often results in the feeling of being too hot or too cold.
This on/off strategy may also contribute to drying the floors.
Another method that has proven itself in Europe is to run the circulating pump continuously and vary the temperature of the water.
This is accomplished by using an outdoor thermostat that can increase the temperature of the water circulating through the floor as the outdoor temperature drops, and will decrease the temperature as outdoor temperatures rise.
This strategy puts just the right amount of heat into the house, eliminating wide temperature swings.
The difference is likened to stop and go city driving versus highway driving with cruise control.
The average water temperature in a climate controlled system is usually about 30 degrees less than if you were to use the on/off control system.
In addition to superior comfort, floors are better protected and energy savings of up to 25 percent can usually be expected.
Circulators or Zone Valves?
Another advantage of radiant heating is being able to put each room on its own zone, allowing you to control the temperature in various rooms independently.
This can be accomplished by using a circulator or zone valves for each room.
Using multiple circulators will increase electrical consumption by as much as 5 to 10 times versus the use of zone valves in some instances.
A typical circulator uses approximately 85 watts.
On the other hand, zone valve uses only 2 watts of electricity.
There has been the argument that if the circulator fails on a system that has only one circulator you are entirely out of heat.
The upside of radiant heat is that it takes a long time for the temperature to drop to a very uncomfortable level.
By the time this happens, the circulator will usually have been replaced.
Keep circulators to a minimum for maximum efficiency.
Communication is the Key
In order to get the results you should expect from your radiant system, there has to be good communication between the heat source and radiant system.
Rather than have a variety of controls by different manufacturers, systems should be integrated into one in order to avoid wiring and troubleshooting headaches.
Finger-pointing among building contractors is also eliminated if ever a problem arises.
You’ll Wonder How You Lived Without It!
This helpful guide to radiant heating contains the fundamental facts to put you on your way to enjoying warmth like you’ve never experience